Documentation: Author-Date System
The Author-Date System briefly cites sources in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. These short citations are detailed in References at the end of the paper. What follows is a description of the citation style to be used in the JAIC. For more complete details, refer to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, or download the Taylor and Francis guide.
- To a reference as a whole:
(Smith 1999, 2002)
(Thomson 1987; Jones 1999; Smith 1999) -- list multiple sources chronologically
(Pratt 1992a, b)
(Singh and Butcher 1990)
(Tucci  1988)
- To a specific page in reference:
(Smith 1999, 49)
Include page numbers in text citations only when meaningful: with direct quotations, or when paraphrasing from a long work in which the concept is not immediately accessible to the reader. Do not use page numbers in references to a journal article or short manual except to support a direct quote.
- Place after author’s name, if possible: Learner (1996) used PyGC-MS to look at a number of synthetic organic pigments.
- If the author and date are in the text, only the page number is needed: In 1906, Forster (54) said, “A critic has no right to the narrowness which is the frequent prerogative of the creative artist.”
- For four or more authors, use first author’s last name and et al.:
incorrect = (Florian, Kronkright, Swift, and Norton 1992)
correct = (Florian et al. 1992)
- If References includes two works of the same year by one author with different coauthors, distinguish them by the second author’s name: (Smith, Jones et al. 2000; Smith, White et al. 2000).
- For authors’ names, provide full names.
- List all authors; do not use et al. in References.
- Italicize (do not underline) titles of books and names of journals.
- Use headline-style capitalization for article names and book titles. In headline style, the first and last words of title and subtitle and all other major words (nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs) are capitalized. For non-English titles, use sentence-style capitalization.
- Convert Roman numerals to Arabic for volume numbers.
- Spell out the title of the journal and give both volume and page numbers; include issue number, month, or season only when pagination is not continuous through the volume.
- Arrange entries alphabetically by author’s last name; place Mc after Mb and before Md.
- For more than one entry by the same author(s), arrange by date, earliest to latest;
- For more than one entry by same author(s) in the same year, arrange in alphabetical order by title and label a, b, etc., after the year (e.g., 1992a, 1992b, etc.)
- Place author’s own volume before a book s/he edited.
- Place single-author entries before multiple-author entries.
- Arrange entries with the same first author and various multiple authors according to the last name of the second author, not by the number of authors.
- Alphabetize corporate authors (such as associations) according to the first significant word or acronym.
- For place of publication, list only the first city; for Canadian publications, provide province and Canada.
- If there are references not cited in the text, group them after References under Further Reading.
- All URLs in References should have the prefix http:// or https:// and include a final / wherever they appear.
- If it is necessary to use a URL in the text, use the full prefix and include any final /.
- When one is available, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) rather than a URL.
- Only include access dates if there is no date of publication or date of last update. Place the date last accessed in conventional form (e.g., August 4, 2014) before a URL or DOI.
- Cyclododecane. 2014. CAMEO (Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online). Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Accessed September 7, 2014. http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Cyclododecane.
Citing Online Resources in Print Publications (e.g., print editions of JAIC, BPG Annual)
- It is only necessary to cite a URL or DOI when the publication only exists online or would be otherwise difficult to locate.
- When a URL must be broken over a line in printed works, it should be broken before rather than after a slash (/).
Citing Online Resources in Electronic Publications (e.g., the Specialty Group wikis)
- Whenever possible, cite a URL or DOI when the publication exists online, and include a hyperlink to the electronic resource.
Capitalization, Hyphenation, Spelling, Italics
academic degrees, no periods, as MA, PhD
ABC fire extinguishers
Acryloid: outdated term; use Paraloid
airbrush (adj., n., v.)
air conditioner, air conditioning
albumen: related to egg white, photographic prints
albumin: proteins in blood plasma or serum
alizarin, but Alizarin Blue, Alizarin Red
America (n.), American (adj.): avoid using as synonymous with United States; American permitted as a noun to describe citizens
annual meeting, but AIC Annual Meeting
appendix, appendices: lower case in text citations; abbreviate as app. in references
article: preferred to the term “paper” but use “essay” except for contributions to symposium proceedings
artist’s intentartist’s materials
artworks: title appears in italics; give date and current location in parentheses except when that information appears in a caption or when the standard catalog number is provided
Blue Wool Standards
ca.: permitted in text Cab-O-Sil
cast iron (n.); cast-iron (adj.)
catalog, but catalogue raisonné
cf.: permitted in parentheses
chair: not chairman
chap. in references; chapter in text
chemical formulas: periods can be on the line rather than above
cleanup (adj., n.)
climate control (adj.)
collection: capitalize only when part of proper name (e.g., the Frick Collection)
Conclusions: as head, not Conclusion
cross-reference (adj., n.)
cross-reference in text
(see table 1)
(see fig. 3a)
(see sec. 3)
cross section (adj., n.)
data: takes plural verb
decision maker, decision making (n.)
drier (when used as an additive)
dryer (when used as an apparatus supplying heat)
e.g.: permitted in text, confine to parentheses and follow with a comma
energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX)
ensure: means “to make sure of” (insure refers to insurance)
eq: abbreviation for equations
equilibrium moisture content (EMC)
equilibrium relative humidity (ERH)
E-SEM: environmental scanning electron microscope, microscopy
et al.: permitted in text
etc.: permitted in text
EVA: no need to spell out
Fellow: initial capital in author biographies
foreign terms: use italics, with roman “s” for Anglicized plurals
FTIR: Fourier transform infrared reflectometry/spectrometry/spectroscopy/analysis
gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS)
-grade: hyphenate as adj.
grass roots (n.)
half-: hyphenate compounds
hardcover (adj., n.)
heat-set (adj., v.)
high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filter
high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
horsehair (adj., n.)
HVAC: no need to spell out
i.e.: permitted in text
Inc.: does not require preceding comma
infill (n., v.)
Jr.: does not require commas
K: degrees Kelvin (e.g., 5000 K); do not use to express thousands
laboratory: not lab
lead white (n.), lead-white (adj.)
legal cases: in italics, as Whistler v. Ruskin
Material Safety Data Sheet
memorandum, memorandums (not memo)
microscopic; preferred to microscopical
mid-: hyphenate compounds
multi: close up compounds
Native American (adj., n.), Native (adj.)
no.: avoid the number symbol #
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
oversize: not oversized
paper: permitted in reviews of conference proceedings; otherwise avoid and use the preferred term “article”
paper-splitting (adj., n.)
patents: U.S. patent [no.]
pendant: not pendent
photograph: not photo as noun (photo as adjective is permitted)
plaster of paris
poly (vinyl chloride), or polyvinyl chloride
-proof: hyphenate compounds in all positions
PVAC: no need to spell out
rabbit skin glue
re-: as a prefix, rarely requires hyphenation, see Webster’s New Third
repaint (n., v.)
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
series: takes singular verb
-size: in compounds, not –sized (except in references to sized paper)
still life, still lifes (n.)
styles and schools of art: initial capital, as Impressionism, Impressionist
supp.: abbreviation for supplement
the: lowercase in names for institutions in text; can be capitalized in photo credits
thin section (n.); thin-section (adj.)
titles of exhibitions: set off with italics
titles of published works and artworks in text, series of paintings: capitalize headline style following Chicago Manual
titles of symposia: initial capitals, quotation marks
trade names: initial capitals; do not use ® or ™
vice-: hyphenate compounds
vs.: abbreviation of versus; except in legal cases (e.g., Whistler v. Ruskin)
water-saturated: hyphenate in all positions
white lead/lead white: be consistent within article; hyphenate as adj.
words as words: in quotation marks
World Wide Web, the Web
wt%: for weight percent (not w/w%)
x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF)
x-ray radiography (better than x-radiography)
x-ray powder diffraction (XRD)