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The American Institute for Conservation and the Foundation for Advancement in Conservation work together to promote the preservation and protection of cultural heritage. Partner with us to further that mission.

Life Cycle Assessment

One of the greatest challenges of the 21st century is climate change. FAIC has been working with partners Northeastern University and the Pratt Institute to develop a Carbon Calculator, Library of Case Studies, and Information Sheets to help cultural heritage professionals make educated, sustainable choices to lower the environmental impact of their work.

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The project is ongoing, and the current phase is led by Sarah Nunberg, Sarah Sutton, Dr. Matthew Eckelman, and Dr. Eric Pourchot. Sarah Sanchez, a doctoral student at Northeastern, has been a key researcher for the project. STiCH and the preliminary life cycle assessment research were made possible by two grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Life Cycle Assessment and Conservation
At present, professionals must make too many treatment and collection management choices with little or no information about the potentially harmful impacts of those choices. It is difficult to make educated choices among solvents, gels, packing materials, and exhibition and storage approaches because there is so little information comparing materials. “Greenwashing” by product manufacturers can be confusing and misleading, with manufacturers randomly labeling products as “green” or “organic.”

Professionals have nowhere to turn to answer questions such as:
  • When cleaning a surface, one might wonder if a steam-based system using minimal acetone is more sustainable than using only acetone, and consequently larger amounts of the solvent. 
  • For packing art, does a system that is actually sustainable, using soft protection made from recyclable material and/or non-petroleum products, exist?
  • Concerning health impact of treatment methods and materials, which solvent or action has a higher health risk?
  • For collection environments, which is less carbon intensive and more economically viable: running an HVAC all night or only when the relative humidity and temperature require adjustment?
LCA helps answer those questions and improve decision-making. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines LCA as “a compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle." (ISO 14040:2006). LCA reports result from the data and conclusions gathered during an in-depth exploration of process and materials for economic comparisons, human health indications, and environmental impact assessment.

FAIC's Phase One Research Project
The initial project (2018-2019) was co-directed by Sarah Nunberg, conservator in private practice, and Sarah Sutton, principal at Sustainable Museums, with the participation of Dr. Matthew Eckelman and graduate students from Northeastern University. Other researchers included Michelle Coughlin of the Gibson House Museum, Pamela Hatchfield of the Fine Arts Museum, Boston, Michael Henry of Watson and Henry, and James Reilly of the Image Permanence Institute. Dr. Eric Pourchot provided FAIC staff guidance and support for the project.

The project investigators produced three representative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) reports; documented the most prevalent activities, products, and events that are part of collections care and access work in museums and historic sites; produced a beta version of a tool for evaluating LCA; and developed a plan for next steps to create a robust LCA library and online tool. These new resources will allow custodians of cultural heritage to evaluate materials and approaches used to maintain collections, and enhance decision-making for care of all forms of material culture.

Project updates